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Diesel

DIESEL ULSD 10 ppm EN-590

Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur content. ULSD has a lower energy content due to the heavy processing required to remove large amounts of sulfur from oil, leading to (1 to 2%) lower fuel economy.

EN590 describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union and several other European countries.

Diesel automatically ignites and burns when it is compressed to a very high pressure. The released energy is contained by the engine and powers the vehicle. The key difference between diesel and petrol engines is auto-ignition. A spark plug ignites the fuel in a petrol engine whereas a diesel engine auto-ignites. Diesel has a Cetane Index and Number rather than the Research Octane Number (RON) that petrol has.

10 ppm Diesel is a low emission/environmentally clean diesel fuel with a sulphur content less than 10 parts per million (ppm) which can be used in all diesel engines. It is especially suitable for diesel engines designed to meet the latest European and American emission standards.

Gasoline

UNLEADED GASOLINE RON 95

The most common type of octane rating worldwide is the Research Octane Number (RON). RON is determined by running the fuel in a test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions, and comparing the results with those for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane

Premium Unleaded (95 RON) is standard unleaded petrol. Despite the name ‘premium’, it’s actually the standard petrol sold all over Europe.

95 RON refers to the octane level of the petrol. This is a measure of how easily the fuel will ignite inside an engine. Higher octane levels mean that the fuel will not ignite as easily and are required for some (a few) high performance engines.

Premium unleaded is suitable for almost all petrol engines. You should be safe to use it unless your car’s user manual specifically specifies that you should only use petrol with an octane rating higher than 95. Very few cars require this.

 

Name Unit Testing Method Min Max
Density at 15°C kg/m³ ASTM D 1298
S SH 33 : 1986
720 775
R.O.N ASTM D 2699 95
M.O.N ASTM D 2700 85
Distillation
Evap at 70°C
Evap at 100°C
Evap at 150°C
FBP
Residue
%v/v
%v/v
%v/v
°C
%v/v
EN/ISO 3405
ASTM D 86
20
46,0
75
48
71,0

210
2
Sulphur mg/kg S SH EN ISO 16135
SH EN ISO 20846
10
Apparence bright & clear Visual inspection Visual inspection
Copper Strip Corrosion
( 3 hours at 50 °C )
S SH EN ISO 2160 Class 1 Class 1
Oxidation Stability minutes S SH EN ISO 7536 360
Lead Content mg/l ASTM D 4294 5
Magnesium content mg/l S SH EN 16135
S SH EN 16135
6,0
2,0
Solv Washed mg/100ml S SH EN ISO 6246 5
Hydrocarbon Content
Olefins
Aromatics
%v/v
%v/v

ASTM D 5845ASTM D 5845




18,035,0
Benzene %v/v ASTM D 6277 1,0
Other Oxygenates
Methanol
Ethanol
so-Propyl Alcohol
Iso-Butyl Alcohol
Tert-Butyl Alcohol
%v/v
%v/v
%v/v
%v/v
%v/v
ASTM D 5845
S SH EN 1601
S SH EN 13132
S SH EN ISO 22854
3
Ethers Containing 5 or more %v/v S SH EN ISO 22854

Gas

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Liquefied Natural Gas fuel (LNG) is produced from a mixture of raw components but is predominantly methane and is compatible with diesel technology, subject to the necessary modifications. Since the composition of methane is CH4, Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) are burning fuel with a relatively low carbon to hydrogen ratio. Our estimate of energy density is 60% compared to diesel.

LNG cannot be converted to a liquid by pressure alone but must be cooled to a very low temperature (lower than -160°C), a process which removes some impurities such as sulphur and water.

The LNG must be stored and transported permanently at around this temperature and this is accomplished by super insulation in a pressurised, double tank system, similar in principle to a thermos flask, together with a venting system to take away vapour. The storage pressure of about 8 bar (8 x atmospheric) is not regarded as very high but because of the insulation requirements the tanks are large, the fuel is only suited to large, heavy diesel vehicles such as trucks, buses and HGVs.

Although the energy density is about 60% compared to diesel the fuel costs are much lower and LNG should give lower running costs.

When compared to diesel, NGVs are quieter and local emissions of pollutants are much reduced. The main drawback, global pollution associated with the burning of fossil fuels, is being addressed because the last few years have seen the growing use of bio methane or biogas (natural gas derived from organic and renewable sources, including waste) as the source of LNG and the same applies to CNG.

 

Oils and lubricants

HELIX

From Helix Ultra fully synthetic motor oils that offer unsurpassed protection against sludge and superior wear and corrosion protection, to premium multigrade oils for everyday driving environments, the Helix range of motor oils has an oil to suit every engine.

Fully synthetic oils are manufactured from 100% synthetic base stock to achieve higher performance levels than both synthetic technology and mineral oils

MOL

Chain-saw lubricating oil for logging and cutting works. Provides long service lifetime of the chain even under heavy conditions. Recommended for all chainsaws (Stihl, Husqvarna, Partner etc).

 

Properties Typical values
Density at 15°C [g/cm3] 0,885
Kinematic viscosity at 40°C [mm2/s] 100
Kinematic viscosity at 100 °C [mm2/s] 10,8
Viscosity index 90
Pour point [°C] -27
Flash point (Cleveland) [°C] 260

 

Antifreeze

Antifreeze, also called coolant, is the colored fluid (usually green or red) found in your radiator. Antifreeze serves a few purposes. The most important is keeping the water in your radiator and engine from freezing in cold temps. It also keeps that same water from boiling over in the summer. Radiators are normally filled with a 50/50 mixture of antifreeze and water. The third function of antifreeze, or coolant is lubrication — it lubricates the moving parts it comes in contact with, like the water pump.

The key chemical component in today’s coolants is ethylene glycol. Mixed correctly, this stuff can keep your radiator fluid from freezing even if the temperature is less than 30 degrees below zero! That’s cold. The amazing thing is that it can also keep the same fluid from boiling at as much as 275 degrees F. Antifreeze can really get control of those water molecules!

Break Fluid

Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in hydraulic brake and hydraulic clutch applications in automobiles, motorcycles, light trucks, and some bicycles. It is used to activate your brakes. But like any fluid in your vehicle, brake fluid needs to be checked regularly and occasionally changed.  Most brake fluids used today are glycol-ether based, but mineral oil (Citroën liquide hydraulique minéral (LHM) and silicone (DOT 5) based fluids are also available.

Brake fluids must meet certain requirements as defined by various standards set by organizations such as the SAE, or local government equivalents.